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We completed a comprehensive review of existing national legislation and regulations which govern geothermal energy utilisation in Kazakhstan. We reviewed legal, regulatory, permitting, monitoring, data collection, and institutional frameworks which govern the geothermal sub-sector to identify gaps and shortcomings inhibiting the use of geothermal resources. Based on the gap analysis, our Team - with the assistance of technical and international consultants - provided recommendations covering legal, institutional, tariff, monitoring, licencing, and permitting aspects.

The World Bank

Kazakhstan Geothermal Sector:
Regulatory and Institutional Review
In terms of low-temperature geothermal resources, Kazakhstan has a huge potential to tap into. This is a key renewable energy sector suitable for district heating purposes as well as other uses. The Project delivered to the World Bank is significant and unique because of a relatively uncommon nature of geothermal energy across Central Asia. Unicase was the first law firm to review this sub-sector, indicate gaps, and provide relevant recommendations to ameliorate the regulatory framework of geothermal energy in Kazakhstan.
The main challenge was Kazakhstan's regulatory environment relating to the geothermal industry or, rather, the absence thereof. This directly affects the industry development: geothermal regulation is barely explored and studied. The Government turned to the Bank for exploring the way geothermal resources could be used to ‘green’ the district heating. The green heating is crucial for Kazakhstan because of the Environmental Social Governance pilot plus adopted decarbonisation policy, and Unicase had been one of the first law firms to make contributions ensuing further steps to develop the sector.
Impact & Outcome
Unicase contribution in the form of barriers identification and stakeholders communication establishment will help the country to introduce first geothermal projects in the electricity and heating sectors, which will become one of the major breakthroughs in renewable energy development.