Unicase addresses potential grid operator failures.
"Kazakhstan's PPA lacks risk allocation, making it unfriendly to investors."
These risks should be somehow allocated and managed by the parties to the PPA. The best international practice places this risk on the offtaker rather than a project company. Regardless of whether the system operator actually dispatches the power plant or merely "takes" the electricity that could be produced in a circumstance when the power plant is available to generate, the offtaker is still obligated to pay.